History of the Israelites: Did the Curses of Musa (PBUH) come to pass?

To make the history of the Israelites easier to follow, I am going to build a series of timelines describing their history.  We start the history of the Israelites by placing the most recognized prophets of the Bible to the time of Isa al Masih (PBUH) in a timeline.

The Most Recognized Prophets of the Bible

This timeline uses the Western calendar (and remember this is all BC or BCE dating).  The width of the bars shows how long that particular prophet lived.  Ibrahim and Musa (PBUT) are important for their Signs which we have looked at already.  Dawood (or David – PBUH) is recognized because he started the Zaboor and he was the first King of a dynasty that ruled from Jerusalem.  Isa al Masih (PBUH) is important because he is central to the Injil.

We see in the green period that the Israelites had been living as slaves in Egypt.Living in Egypt as slaves of Pharaoh

This period of time started when Yusuf (or Joseph) great-grandson of Ibrahim (PBUT) led his people to Egypt, but they became slaves there.  Musa (PBUH) led the Israelites out of Egypt with the Passover Sign.

So with Musa (PBUH) the history of Israelites changes and it is now shown in yellow.Living in the Land - but no King in Jerusalem

They live in the land of Israel (or Palestine).  Musa (PBUH) pronounces the Blessings and Curses on them at the end of his life – when the timeline goes from green to yellow.  So for several hundred years the Israelites live in this land promised in Sign 1 of Ibrahim.  However they do not have a King, nor do they have a capital city of Jerusalem – it belonged to other people in this time period.

However, with the sending of Dawood (or David) about 1000 BC to the Israelites this changes.Living with Kings from Dawood ruling from Jerusalem

Dawood (PBUH) conquers Jerusalem and makes it his capital city where the King’s palace was and he was anointed as King by the Prophet Samuel (PBUH).  And his son Suleiman (or Solomon), also famous for his wisdom, rules as his successor.  Suleiman builds a wonderful Temple to the LORD in Jerusalem.  The descendants of King Dawood continue to rule for about 400 years and this period is shown in light blue (1000 – 600 BC).  This was the glory period for the Israelites – they started to see the Blessings promised.  They were a world power, had an advanced society, had culture, a Temple and this was the period when many prophets had messages from Allah and they are recorded in the Zaboor that David started.  But the reason that there were many prophets sent was because the Israelites became more and more corrupt, worshiping idols, and disobeying the Ten Commandments.  So Allah sent them prophets to warn them and remind them that the Curses of Musa would come upon them.  But the Israelites did not listen.

So finally around 600 BC the Curses came true.  Nebuchadnezzar, a powerful King from Babylon came – and just like Musa had predicted in his Curse when he wrote

The Lord will bring a nation against you from far away … a fierce-looking nation without respect for the old or pity for the young.  …  They will besiege all the cities throughout the land. (Deuteronomy 28: 49-52)

Nebuchadnezzar conquered Jerusalem, burned it, and destroyed the Temple that Suleiman had built.  He then took the Israelites and deported the majority across his vast Babylonian Empire.  Only the poor Israelites remained behind.  Thus was fulfilled the predictions of Musa that

You will be uprooted from the land you are entering to possess.  Then the Lord will scatter you among all nations, from one end of the earth to the other. (Deuteronomy 28:63-64)

Conquered and exiled to Babylon
Conquered and exiled to Babylon

So for 70 years, the period shown in red, the Israelites lived as exiles outside the Promised Land.

After that, the Persian Emperor Cyrus conquered Babylon and Cyrus became the most powerful person in the world.  And he issued a decree that permitted the Israelites to return to their land.Living in the Land as a part of Persian Empire

However they were no longer an independent country, they were now a province within the vast Persian Empire.  This continued for 200 years and is shown in pink in the timeline.  During this time the Temple was rebuilt (known as the 2nd Temple) and the last prophets of the Old Testament had their messages.

And then Alexander the Great conquered the Persian Empire and made the Israelites a province in his Empire which also continued for another 200 years.  This is shown in dark blue.Living in the Land as part of Greek Empires

Then the Romans defeated the Greek Empires and they became the mighty Roman Empire.  The Israelites again became a province in this Empire and it is shown in light yellow.  The prophet Isa al Masih lived in Israel in this time.  This explains why there is a Roman Governor and Roman soldiers throughout the account of the Injil – because the Romans ruled the Jews in the Land during the life of Isa al Masih.

However, from the time of the Babylonians (600 BC) the Israelites (or Jews as they were called now) had never been independent again as they had been under the Kings of Dawood.  They were ruled by other governments of other people. They resented this and after the passing of Isa al Masih they revolted against Roman rule.  A war of independence started.  But the Jews lost this war.  In fact the Romans came and destroyed Jerusalem, burned down the 2ndTemple and deported the Jews as slaves across the Roman Empire.  Since this Empire was so vast the Jews were effectively dispersed across the whole world.

And this is how they lived for almost 2000 years: dispersed, fragmented, living in foreign lands and never accepted in these lands.  The words of Musa given in the Curse were fulfilled as it was written

… Among those nations you will find no repose, no resting place for the sole of your foot. There the Lord will give you an anxious mind, eyes weary with longing, and a despairing heart. (Deuteronomy 28:65)

So were the Curses of Musa fulfilled?  Yes they were, and to every detail.  The Curses against the Israelites were given to make us who are not Jews ask:

All the nations will ask: “Why has the Lord done this to this land? Why this fierce, burning anger?”

And the answer will be: “ … the Lord uprooted them from their land and thrust them into another land…” (Deuteronomy 29:24-25)

This is an important Sign to us to take the Prophets’ Warnings very seriously – because there will be warnings for us as well.

Of course this historical survey only goes up to about 2000 years ago.  Click here to see how the blessings and curses of the prophet Musa (PBUH) concluded into our modern times.

Sign 1 of Ibrahim: Blessing

Ibrahim! He is also known as Abraham and Abram (PBUH).  All three monotheistic religions Judaism, Christianity and Islam view him as model to follow. Arabs and Jews today trace their physical ancestry from him through his sons Ishmael and Isaac. He is also important in the line of the prophets because the later prophets build on him.  So we will look at the sign of Ibraham (PBUH) in several parts. Click here to read his first sign in the Qur’an and in the Taurat.

We see in the ayat from the Qur’an that Ibrahim (PBUH) was to have ‘tribes’ of people coming from him. These people were then to have a ‘great Kingdom’. But a man must have at least one son before he can have ‘Tribes’ of people, and he must also have a place before these people can have a ‘Great Kingdom’.

Promise to Ibrahim (PBUH)

The passage from the Taurat (Genesis 12:1-7) shows how Allah was going to unfold this double fulfillment of ‘tribes’ and a ‘Great Kingdom’ coming from Ibrahim (PBUH). Allah gave him a promise that was a foundation for the future. Let us review it further in detail. We see that Allah says to Ibrahim:

“I will make you into a great nation,
and I will bless you;
I will make your name great,
and you will be a blessing.
I will bless those who bless you,
and whoever curses you I will curse;
and all peoples on earth
will be blessed through you.

 

Greatness of Ibrahim

Many people today where I live wonder if there is a God and how one can know if He really revealed himself through the Taurat.  Here before us is a promise, parts of which we can verify.  The end of this revelation records that Allah directly promised to Ibrahim (PBUH) that ‘I will make your name great‘.  We sit in the 21st century and the name of Ibrahim/Abraham/Abram is one of the most globally recognized names in history.  This promise has literally and historically come true.  The earliest copy of the Taurat that exists today is from the Dead Sea Scrolls which date to 200-100 B.C.  This means that this promise has, at the very least, been in writing since that time.  At that time the person and name of Ibrahim was not well-known – only to the minority of Jews who followed the Taurat.  But today his name is great, so we can verify a fulfillment that has only come about after it was written down, not before.

This part of the promise to Ibrahim has definitely happened, as should be obvious even to unbelievers, and this gives us even greater confidence to understand the remaining part of this promise of Allah to Ibrahim.  Let’s continue to study it.

Blessing to us

Again, we can see the promise of a ‘great nation’ from Ibrahim and a ‘blessing’ to Ibrahim. But there is something else as well, the blessing is not only for Ibrahim because it says that “all peoples on earth will be blessed through you” (i.e. through Ibrahim). This should make you and I sit up and take notice. Because you and I are part of ‘all peoples on earth’ – no matter what our religion, ethnic background, where we live, our social status, or what language we speak. This promise is for everybody alive today.  This is a promise for you.  Though our different religions, ethnic backgrounds and languages often divide people and cause conflict, this is a promise that looks to overcome these things that usually divide us. How? When? What kind of blessing? This was not clearly revealed at this point, but this Sign birthed a promise that is for you and me through Ibrahim (PBUH).  Since we know that one part of this promise has come true, we can have confidence that this other part that applies to us will also have a clear and literal fulfillment – we just need to find the key to unlock it.

We can notice that when Ibrahim received this promise he obeyed Allah and…

“So Abram left as the LORD had told him” (v. 4)

Map of Ibrahim’s journey

How long was this journey to the Promised Land? The map here shows his journey. He lived originally in Ur (Southern Iraq today) and moved to Haran (Northern Iraq). Ibrahim (PBUH) then journeyed to what was called Canaan in his day. You can see that this was a long journey. He would have traveled on camel, horse or donkey so it would have taken many months. Ibrahim left his family, his comfortable life (Mesopotamia at this time was the center of civilization), his security and all that was familiar to travel to a land that was foreign to him. And this, the Taurat tells us, when he was 75 years old!

Animal sacrifices like previous Prophets

The Taurat also tells us that when Ibrahim (PBUH) arrived in Canaan safely:

“So he built an altar there to the LORD “ (v. 7)

An altar would be where, like Qabil and Noah before him, he offered blood sacrifices of animals to Allah. We see that this is a pattern of how the prophets worshiped Allah.

Ibrahim (PBUH) had risked so much so late in his life to travel to this new land. But in so doing he submitted himself to the Promise of Allah to both be blessed and to be a blessing to all Peoples. And that is why he is so important to us. We continue with the Sign 2 of Ibrahim next.