The Close: Blessings & Curses

In our last post we saw the standards Allah gave so we could recognize true prophets – that they foretell the future as part of their message.  The Prophet Musa (PBUH) himself applied this rule – making predictions about the future of the Israelites – ones that had to come true if his message was from Allah. These predictions were coming Curses and Blessings on the Israelites. You can read the complete Blessings and Curses here. The main points are below.

The Blessings of Musa

The Prophet Musa (PBUH) starts out by describing the wonderful blessings that the Israelites would receive if they obeyed The Commands. These blessings would be in the sight of the other nations so that they would recognize His blessing. As it is written

Then all the peoples on earth will see that you are called by the name of the Lord, and they will fear you. (Deuteronomy 28:10)

However, if they failed to obey the Commands then they would receive Curses that were the opposite of the Blessings. The Curses would match and mirror the Blessings. These curses would also be seen by the surrounding nations

You will become a thing of horror, a byword and an object of ridicule among all the peoples here the LORD will drive you. (Deuteronomy 28:37)

And the Curses would be for the Israelites themselves

They will be a sign and a wonder to you and your descendants forever. (Deuteronomy 28:46)

And Allah warned that the worst part of the Curses would come from others.

The LORD will bring a nation against you from far away, from the ends of the earth, like an eagle swooping down, a nation whose language you will not understand, a fierce-looking nation without respect for the old or pity for the young. They will devour the young of your livestock and the crops of your land until you are destroyed … until you are ruined. They will lay siege to all the cities throughout your land until the high fortified walls in which you trust fall down. They will besiege all the cities throughout the land. (Deuteronomy 28:49-52)

And it would go from bad to worse

You will be uprooted from the land you are entering to possess. Then the LORD will scatter you among all nations, from one end of the earth to the other. … Among those nations you will find no repose, no resting place for the sole of your foot. There the LORD will give you an anxious mind, eyes weary with longing, and a despairing heart. (Deuteronomy 28:63-65)

These Blessings and Curses were established by a covenant (an agreement)

…to confirm you this day as his people, that he may be your God as he promised you and as he swore to your fathers, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. I am making this covenant, with its oath … also with those who are not here today. (Deuteronomy 29:12-15)

In other words this covenant would be binding on the children, or future generations. In fact this covenant was directed at future generations – both Israelites and foreigners

Your children who follow you in later generations and foreigners who come from distant lands will see the calamities that have fallen on the land and the diseases with which the LORD has afflicted it. … nothing planted, nothing sprouting, no vegetation growing on it. … All the nations will ask: “Why has the LORD done this to this land? Why this fierce, burning anger?”

And the answer will be: “It is because this people abandoned the covenant of the LORD, the God of their ancestors, the covenant he made with them when he brought them out of Egypt….Therefore the LORD’s anger burned against this land, so that he brought on it all the curses written in this book. … the LORD uprooted them from their land and thrust them into another land, as it is now.” (Deuteronomy 29:21-27)

Did The Blessings and Curses of Musa come to pass?

The Blessings promised were wonderful, but the Curses threatened were severe. However, the most important question we can ask is: ‘Did these things happen?’ In answering this we will see whether Musa (PBUH) was a true prophet and we will gain guidance for our lives today.

The answer is within our grasp. Much of the Old Testament of al Kitab is the record of the history of the Israelites and from that we can see what happens. Also we have records outside the Old Testament, from Jewish historians like Josephus, Graeco-Roman historians like Tacitus and we have found many archeological monuments. All of these sources agree and paint a consistent picture of the history of the Israelites. This is another Sign for us. Here is an overview of the history of the Israelites pictured with Timelines to help us see better what happened in their history.

What do we see from this history? Yes indeed the Curses of Musa, terrible as they were DID come to pass – and exactly like he wrote down those thousands of years ago – before it all happened (Remember these predictions were not written down after they happened but before).

But the Curse of Musa did not end there. It continued. Here is how Musa (PBUH) concluded these curses.

When all these blessings and curses I have set before you come on you and you take them to heart wherever the LORD your God disperses you among the nations, and when you and your children return to the LORD your God and obey him with all your heart and with all your soul according to everything I command you today, then the LORD your God will restore your fortunes and have compassion on you and gather you again from all the nations where he scattered you. Even if you have been banished to the most distant land under the heavens, from there the LORD your God will gather you and bring you back. He will bring you to the land that belonged to your ancestors, and you will take possession of it. He will make you more prosperous and numerous than your ancestors (Deuteronomy 30:1-5)

An obvious question to ask (again) is: Did that happen? Click here to see the continuation of their history.

The Close of Taurat – The Zabur anticipated

With these Blessings and Curses, the Taurat is concluded. The Prophet Musa (PBUH) dies shortly after it is completed. Then the Israelites, under the successor to Musa – Joshua – enter the Land. As explained in the History of the Israelites, they lived there without a King and with no capital city until the great King Dawood or Dawud (or David) rose to power. He started a new section of the Old Testament which the Qur’an affirms as the Zabur. We need to understand the Zabur because it continues the Signs started in the Taurat – that will help us understand the Injil. Next we see how the Qur’an and Isa al Masih speak of Dawood (PBUH) and the Zabur.

History of the Israelites: Did the Curses of Musa (PBUH) come to pass?

To make the history of the Israelites easier to follow, I am going to build a series of timelines describing their history.  We start the history of the Israelites by placing the most recognized prophets of the Bible to the time of Isa al Masih (PBUH) in a timeline.

The Most Recognized Prophets of the Bible

This timeline uses the Western calendar (and remember this is all BC or BCE dating).  The width of the bars shows how long that particular prophet lived.  Ibrahim and Musa (PBUT) are important for their Signs which we have looked at already.  Dawood (or David – PBUH) is recognized because he started the Zaboor and he was the first King of a dynasty that ruled from Jerusalem.  Isa al Masih (PBUH) is important because he is central to the Injil.

We see in the green period that the Israelites had been living as slaves in Egypt.Living in Egypt as slaves of Pharaoh

This period of time started when Yusuf (or Joseph) great-grandson of Ibrahim (PBUT) led his people to Egypt, but they became slaves there.  Musa (PBUH) led the Israelites out of Egypt with the Passover Sign.

So with Musa (PBUH) the history of Israelites changes and it is now shown in yellow.Living in the Land - but no King in Jerusalem

They live in the land of Israel (or Palestine).  Musa (PBUH) pronounces the Blessings and Curses on them at the end of his life – when the timeline goes from green to yellow.  So for several hundred years the Israelites live in this land promised in Sign 1 of Ibrahim.  However they do not have a King, nor do they have a capital city of Jerusalem – it belonged to other people in this time period.

However, with the sending of Dawood (or David) about 1000 BC to the Israelites this changes.Living with Kings from Dawood ruling from Jerusalem

Dawood (PBUH) conquers Jerusalem and makes it his capital city where the King’s palace was and he was anointed as King by the Prophet Samuel (PBUH).  And his son Suleiman (or Solomon), also famous for his wisdom, rules as his successor.  Suleiman builds a wonderful Temple to the LORD in Jerusalem.  The descendants of King Dawood continue to rule for about 400 years and this period is shown in light blue (1000 – 600 BC).  This was the glory period for the Israelites – they started to see the Blessings promised.  They were a world power, had an advanced society, had culture, a Temple and this was the period when many prophets had messages from Allah and they are recorded in the Zaboor that David started.  But the reason that there were many prophets sent was because the Israelites became more and more corrupt, worshiping idols, and disobeying the Ten Commandments.  So Allah sent them prophets to warn them and remind them that the Curses of Musa would come upon them.  But the Israelites did not listen.

So finally around 600 BC the Curses came true.  Nebuchadnezzar, a powerful King from Babylon came – and just like Musa had predicted in his Curse when he wrote

The Lord will bring a nation against you from far away … a fierce-looking nation without respect for the old or pity for the young.  …  They will besiege all the cities throughout the land. (Deuteronomy 28: 49-52)

Nebuchadnezzar conquered Jerusalem, burned it, and destroyed the Temple that Suleiman had built.  He then took the Israelites and deported the majority across his vast Babylonian Empire.  Only the poor Israelites remained behind.  Thus was fulfilled the predictions of Musa that

You will be uprooted from the land you are entering to possess.  Then the Lord will scatter you among all nations, from one end of the earth to the other. (Deuteronomy 28:63-64)

Conquered and exiled to Babylon
Conquered and exiled to Babylon

So for 70 years, the period shown in red, the Israelites lived as exiles outside the Promised Land.

After that, the Persian Emperor Cyrus conquered Babylon and Cyrus became the most powerful person in the world.  And he issued a decree that permitted the Israelites to return to their land.Living in the Land as a part of Persian Empire

However they were no longer an independent country, they were now a province within the vast Persian Empire.  This continued for 200 years and is shown in pink in the timeline.  During this time the Temple was rebuilt (known as the 2nd Temple) and the last prophets of the Old Testament had their messages.

And then Alexander the Great conquered the Persian Empire and made the Israelites a province in his Empire which also continued for another 200 years.  This is shown in dark blue.Living in the Land as part of Greek Empires

Then the Romans defeated the Greek Empires and they became the mighty Roman Empire.  The Israelites again became a province in this Empire and it is shown in light yellow.  The prophet Isa al Masih lived in Israel in this time.  This explains why there is a Roman Governor and Roman soldiers throughout the account of the Injil – because the Romans ruled the Jews in the Land during the life of Isa al Masih.

However, from the time of the Babylonians (600 BC) the Israelites (or Jews as they were called now) had never been independent again as they had been under the Kings of Dawood.  They were ruled by other governments of other people. They resented this and after the passing of Isa al Masih they revolted against Roman rule.  A war of independence started.  But the Jews lost this war.  In fact the Romans came and destroyed Jerusalem, burned down the 2ndTemple and deported the Jews as slaves across the Roman Empire.  Since this Empire was so vast the Jews were effectively dispersed across the whole world.

And this is how they lived for almost 2000 years: dispersed, fragmented, living in foreign lands and never accepted in these lands.  The words of Musa given in the Curse were fulfilled as it was written

… Among those nations you will find no repose, no resting place for the sole of your foot. There the Lord will give you an anxious mind, eyes weary with longing, and a despairing heart. (Deuteronomy 28:65)

So were the Curses of Musa fulfilled?  Yes they were, and to every detail.  The Curses against the Israelites were given to make us who are not Jews ask:

All the nations will ask: “Why has the Lord done this to this land? Why this fierce, burning anger?”

And the answer will be: “ … the Lord uprooted them from their land and thrust them into another land…” (Deuteronomy 29:24-25)

This is an important Sign to us to take the Prophets’ Warnings very seriously – because there will be warnings for us as well.

Of course this historical survey only goes up to about 2000 years ago.  Click here to see how the blessings and curses of the prophet Musa (PBUH) concluded into our modern times.

Did the Conclusion of the Curse of Musa (PBUH) occur?

We saw in the history of the Israelites that in 70 AD they were expelled from the Promised Land to live as exiles and foreigners in all the nations of the world.  For about 2000 years this was where and how the Israelites lived.  As they lived in these different nations they periodically suffered great persecutions.  This was particularly true in Christian Europe.  From Spain, in Western Europe, to the pogroms in Russia the Israelites lived often in a precarious state. The words of Musa given in the Curse were fulfilled as it was written

 … Among those nations you will find no repose, no resting place for the sole of your foot. There the Lord will give you an anxious mind, eyes weary with longing, and a despairing heart.  (Deuteronomy 28:65)

The timeline below shows this 2000 year period which follows after the history of the Israelites from the time of the Bible.  This period is shown in a long red bar.

A Historical Timeline of Jewish people from Musa until Today

You can see that the Israelites through their history went through two periods of exile but the second period of exile was much longer than the first period of exile (which was only from 600 – 530 BC).

The Jews kept their cultural Identity

What is fascinating to me is that though the Israelites never had a central place to put down cultural roots, and though they never grew very numerous (often because of deaths in persecution) they never lost their cultural identity over this 2000 year period.  That is quite remarkable.  Here in the Taurat is a list of nations that lived in the Promised Land at the time of Sign 1 of Musa (PBUH).

So I have come down to rescue them from the hand of the Egyptians and to bring them up out of that land into a good and spacious land, a land flowing with milk and honey—the home of the Canaanites, Hittites, Amorites, Perizzites, Hivites and Jebusites. (Exodus 3:8)

And from the time of the giving of the Blessings and Curses:

When the LORD your God brings you into the land you are entering to possess and drives out before you many nations—the Hittites, Girgashites, Amorites, Canaanites, Perizzites, Hivites and Jebusites, seven nations larger and stronger than you (Deuteronomy 7:1)

Do any of these people still exist, retaining their cultural and linguistic identity?  No they are long gone.  We only know about ‘Girgashites’ from this ancient history.  As the mighty Babylonian, Persian, Greek and then Roman empires conquered these nations they quickly lost their language and identity as they were absorbed into these large empires.  As I live in Canada I see immigrants come here from all over the world.  After the 3rd generation the culture and language of the country of immigration is long gone.  I immigrated from Sweden to Canada when I was very young.  My son does not speak Swedish.  Neither do the children of my brother or sister.  The Swedish identity of my forebears is disappearing in the Canadian cultural melting pot.  And this is true of almost all immigrants whether they come from China, Japan, Korea, Iran, South America, Africa or the countries of Europe – within three generations it is lost.

So it is remarkable that the Israelites, living in such hostility, forced to flee here and there over the centuries, their global population never exceeding 15 million, never lost their identity – religious, cultural and language – even though this lasted for 2000 years.

Modern genocide of the Jews – The Holocaust

Then the persecutions and pogroms against the Jews reached their peak. Hitler in World War II, through Nazi Germany tried to exterminate all the Jews living in Europe.  And he almost succeeded by creating a mechanized system of exterminating them in gas ovens.  However he was defeated and a remnant of Jews survived.

Modern Re-birth of Israel

And then in 1948 the Jews, through the United Nations, had the remarkable re-birth of the modern state of Israel.  It is remarkable just in the fact, as noted above, that there were people still around who identified themselves as ‘Jews’ after all these years.  But for these words of Musa written down 3500 years ago to come true there had to remain a ‘you’ or a people that could receive the promise. So they remained a people even while in their long exile.

…then the Lord your God will restore your fortunes and have compassion on you and gather you again from all the nations where he scattered you. Even if you have been banished to the most distant land under the heavens, from there the Lord your God will gather you and bring you back. (Deuteronomy 30:3-4)

This is indeed a sign that Allah keeps His Word.

It was also remarkable in that this state was founded in the teeth of opposition.  Most of the nations in that region waged war against Israel in 1948 … in 1956 … in 1967 and again in 1973.  Israel, a very small nation, often found itself at war with five nations at the same time.  Yet not only did they survive, but their territories increased.  In the war of 1967 the Jews regained Jerusalem, their historic capital city that Dawood (David) had founded.

Why did Allah allow the re-birth of Israel

To this day, all these modern developments are very controversial.  Almost no other modern happening arouses so much controversy as the re-birth of Israel and the return of the Israelites – happening almost daily now – from these nations all over the world where they had lived for thousands of years in exile.  And perhaps as you read this you yourself are filled with anger.  It is certainly not that the Jews today are religious – most are very secular or atheistic because of what happened with Hitler’s almost successful genocide.  And it is not that they are necessarily correct.  But the remarkable fact is that what Musa wrote down in the end of the Curses has occurred and is still occurring before our eyes.  Why?  What does this mean?  And how could this happen when they still reject the Masih?  These are important questions.  Answers can be found to all these questions in the Taurat and Zabur.  Maybe you are angry with what I have just written, perhaps bitter.  But perhaps we can hold off final judgment until we understand some of what the prophets wrote down about this remarkable event.  They wrote them down for our benefit – because this will all lead to Judgment – for the Jews and the rest of all alike.  Let us at least be informed of what these prophets wrote so that we can form our judgments from all writings.  We continue with the Zabur to ask why the Jews rejected the Masih.

Sign 1 of Musa: The Passover

About 500 years have now passed since the Prophet Ibrahim (PBUH) and it is about 1500 BC. After Ibrahim died, his descendants through his son Isaac, now called Israelites, have become a vast number of people but also have become slaves in Egypt. This happened because Joseph, great-grandson of Ibrahim (PBUH) was sold as a slave to Egypt and then, years later, his family followed.  This is all explained in Genesis 45-46 – the First Book of Musa in the Taurat.

So we now come to the Signs of another great Prophet – Musa (PBUH) – which is told in the second Book of the Taurat , called Exodus because it is the account of how the prophet Musa (PBUH) leads the Israelites out of Egypt. Musa (PBUH) had been commanded by the LORD to meet Pharaoh of Egypt and it resulted in a contest between Musa (PBUH) and the sorcerers of Pharaoh. This contest has produced the famous nine plagues or disasters against Pharaoh which were signs for him. But Pharaoh has not submitted himself to the LORD’s will and is disobeying these signs.

The 10th Plague

So Allah is going to bring about a 10th and most fearsome plague (disaster). At this point the Taurat gives some preparation and explanation before the 10th plague comes. The Qur’an also refers to this point in the account in the following ayat

To Moses We did give Nine Clear Signs: As the Children of Israel: when he came to them, Pharaoh said to him: “O Moses! I consider thee, indeed, to have been worked upon by sorcery!

Moses said, “Thou knowest well that these things have been sent down by none but the Lord of the heavens and the earth as eye-opening evidence: and I consider thee indeed, O Pharaoh, to be one doomed to destruction!” (Surah 17 Isra’, The Night Journey: 101-102)

So Pharaoh is ‘doomed to destruction’. But how was this to happen? Allah had in the past given destruction in different ways. For the people of Noah’s day it was drowning in a world-wide flood, and for Lut’s wife it was turning into a pillar of salt. But this destruction was to be different because it was also to be a Sign for all peoples – a Great Sign. As the Qur’an says

Then did (Moses) show him the Great Sign. (Surah 79 Those Who Drag Forth: 20)

You can read the explanation of the 10th Plague in Exodus of Taurat in the link here and I hope you do so because it is a very complete account and it will help you in better understanding the explanation below.

Passover Lamb Saves from Death

This scripture tells us that the destruction decreed by Allah was that every firstborn son was to die that night except those staying in a house where a lamb had been sacrificed and its blood painted on the doorposts of that house. The destruction to Pharaoh, if he did not obey, would be that his son and heir to the throne would die. And every house in Egypt would lose the firstborn son – if they did not submit by sacrificing a lamb and painting its blood on their doorposts. So Egypt faced a national disaster.

But in houses where a lamb had been sacrificed and its blood painted on the doorposts the promise was that everyone would be safe. Allah’s judgment would pass over that house. So this day and Sign was called Passover (since death passed over all houses where lamb’s blood had been painted on the doors). But for whom was the blood on doors a Sign? The Taurat tells us:

The LORD said to Moses … ” … I am the LORD. The blood [of the Passover lamb] will be a sign for you on the houses where you are; and when I see the blood, I will pass over you. (Exodus 12:13)

So, though the LORD was looking for the blood on the door, and when He saw it He would pass over, the blood was not a Sign for Him. It says that the blood was a ‘sign for you’ – the people. And by extension it is a Sign for all of us who read this account in the Taurat. So how is it a Sign for us? After this event happened the LORD commanded them to:

Celebrate this day as a lasting ordinance for generations to come. When you enter the land … observe this ceremony… It is the Passover sacrifice to the LORD’ (Exodus 12: 27)

 

Passover Starts Jewish Calendar

So the Israelites were commanded to celebrate Passover on the same day every year. The Israelite calendar is a little different from the Western one, so the day in the year changes slightly each year if you track it by the Western calendar, very similar to how Ramadan, because it is based on a different year-length, moves each year in the Western Calendar. But to this day, still 3500 years later, Jewish people continue to celebrate Passover every year in memory of this event from the time of Musa (PBUH) in obedience to the command given then by the LORD in the Taurat.

Scene from modern day when many lambs are being slaughtered for an upcoming Jewish Passover celebration

Here is a modern-day picture of Jewish people slaughtering lambs for the upcoming Passover.  It is similar to the Eid celebration.

And in tracking this celebration through history we can note something quite extraordinary. You can notice this in the Gospel (Injil) where it records the details of the arrest and trial of the Prophet Isa al Masih (PBUH):

“Then the Jews led Isa … to the palace of the Roman governor [Pilate]… to avoid ceremonial uncleanness the Jews did not enter the palace; they wanted to be able to eat the Passover” … [Pilate] said [to Jewish leaders] “…But it is your custom for me to release to you one prisoner at the time of the Passover. Do you want me to release ‘the king of the Jews’? [i.e. the Masih]” They shouted back, “No not him…” (John 18:28, 39-40)

In other words, Isa al Masih (PBUH) was arrested and sent for execution right on the Passover day in the Jewish calendar. Now if you remember from Sign 3 of Ibrahim, one of the titles of Isa given to him by the prophet Yahya (PBUH) was

The next day John (i.e. Yahya) saw Jesus (i.e. Isa) coming toward him and said, “Look, the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world. This is the one I meant when I said ‘A man who comes after me has surpassed me because he was before me’”. (John 1:29-30)

Isa (PBUH) Condemned on Passover

And here we see the uniqueness of this Sign. Isa (PBUH), the ‘Lamb of God’, was sent for execution (sacrifice) on the very same day that all the Jews alive then (the year 33 AD in Western calendar) were sacrificing a lamb in memory of the first Passover that had occurred 1500 years before. This is why the Jewish Passover celebration usually occurs every year in the same week as Easter – the remembrance of the passing of Isa al Masih – because Isa (PBUH) was sent for sacrifice on the same day. (Easter and Passover are not on the same exact date because Jewish and western calendars have different ways of adjusting the length of the year, but they are usually in the same week).

Now think for a minute about what ‘signs’ do. You can see some signs below here.

What Signs do
What do ‘signs’ do? They are pointers in our minds to make us think of something else

When we see the sign of the ‘skull and bones’ it is to make us think of death and danger. The sign of the ‘Golden Arches’ is supposed to make us think about McDonalds. The sign of the ‘√’ on tennis player Nadal’s bandana is the sign for Nike. Nike wants us to think of them when we see this sign on Nadal. In other words, Signs are pointers in our minds to direct our thinking to the desired object. With this sign of Musa (PBUH) it is Allah who has given the sign for us. Why did He give this sign? Well the sign, with the remarkable timing of lambs being sacrificed on the same day as Isa must be a pointer to the sacrifice of Isa al Masih (PBUH).

The Sign of Musa - Passover
The Passover is a ‘Sign’ to me in that it points to the sacrifice of Isa al Masih.

It works in our minds like I have shown in the diagram here about me. The sign was there to point me to the giving up of Isa al Masih.  In that first Passover the lambs were sacrificed and the blood drained and spread so the people could live.  And thus, this Sign pointing to Isa is to tell us that he, ‘The Lamb of God’, was also given to death so we could find life.

The Sign of Ibrahim
The Sacrifice of the son of Ibrahim was to point us in our thinking to Isa al Masih

We saw in Sign 3 of Ibrahim that the place where Ibrahim (PBUH) was tested with the sacrifice of his son was Mount Moriah. But a lamb at the last moment was sacrificed instead of his son.  A lamb died so Ibrahim’s son could live.  Mount Moriah was the very same place where Isa (PBUH) was given for sacrifice. That was a Sign to make us think of Isa al Masih (PBUH) being given up for sacrifice by pointing to the location. Here in this Sign of Musa we find another pointer to the same event – the giving up of Isa (PBUH) for sacrifice – by pointing to the day in the calendar of the Passover Sacrifice.  A lamb’s sacrifice is once again used to point to the same event. Why? We continue with the next Sign of Musa to get further understanding. This Sign is the giving of the Law at Mount Sinai.

But to finish this Sign, what happened to Pharaoh?  As we read in the passage from Taurat, he did not heed the warning and his firstborn son (the heir) died that night.  So he finally allowed the Israelites to leave Egypt.  But then he changed his mind and pursued them to the Red Sea.  There the LORD caused the Israelites to pass through the Sea but Pharaoh drowned along with his army.  After the nine plagues, the Passover deaths, and the loss of the army, Egypt was greatly diminished and never again regained her status as the world’s foremost power.  Allah had judged her.